Wednesday, 21 May 2014

The Percy memorial, Bramham Moor



Having driven past it on a daily basis I finally took a photo of the remnants of a monument that marks where Henry Percy fell at the battle of Bramham Moor (albeit relocated slightly from its original location).


The Battle of Bramham Moor on 19 February 1408 was the final battle in the Percy Rebellion of 1402 – 1408, which pitted the Earl of Northumberland, leader of the wealthy and influential Percy family, against the usurper King of England, King Henry IV. The Percy’s had previously aided Henry IV in his coup d'etat against his cousin, King Richard II in 1399.


Silver penny, Richard II, York mint

At Bramham Moor, south of Wetherby, Percy’s army was met by a force of local Yorkshire levies and noble retinues which had been hastily assembled to meet the force, led by the High Sheriff of Yorkshire Sir Thomas Rokeby. The exact sizes and compositions of the contending armies are not known, but the armies were far smaller than the thousands who had gathered at Shrewsbury, the rebels failing to gain widespread support or receive aid from other rebellious factions, such as Wales, where Owain Glyndŵr's rebellion was collapsing.

Percy was defeated, and the Earl himself died fighting a furious rearguard action as his army was routed. His severed head was subsequently put on display at London Bridge.


His position as a character in the Shakespearean canon may have inspired the character of Lord Percy Percy, Duke of Northumberland, played by Tim McInnerny in the first series of the historical sitcom The Black Adder that is set during the very late Plantagenet era.

Tuesday, 8 April 2014

Caracalla assassinated 1797 years ago!

On April 8th 217 AD the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (better known these days from the nickname or agnomen Caracalla, which, according to Aureius Victor refers to a Gallic cloak that Caracalla adopted as a personal fashion, which spread to his army and his court) was assassinated.

While travelling from Edessa to continue the war with Parthia, he was assassinated while urinating at a roadside near Carrhae on 8 April 217 (4 days after his 29th birthday), by Julius Martialis, an officer of his personal bodyguard. Herodian says that Martialis' brother had been executed a few days earlier by Caracalla on an unproven charge; Cassius Dio, on the other hand, says that Martialis was resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion. The escort of the emperor gave him privacy to relieve himself, and Martialis then ran forward and killed Caracalla with a single sword stroke. While attempting to flee, the bold assassin was then quickly dispatched by a Scythian archer of the Imperial Guard.

Caracalla was succeeded by his Praetorian Guard Prefect, Macrinus, who (according to Herodian) was most probably responsible for having the emperor assassinated.

The coin at the start of this post is a silver denarius of Caracalla from Rome with Jupiter holding a thunderbolt on the reverse. It was struck during the last year of his reign.


Tuesday, 25 February 2014

The Eagle of the Ninth Legion

Mark Antony (or Marc Antony)
Denarius
Patrae Mint(?)
Obv: ANT AVG III VIR RPC
Galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow
Rev: LEG VIIII
Aquila (legionary eagle) between two legionary standards
Crawford 544

Legio Nona Hispana (Ninth Spanish Legion) was a Roman legion which operated from the 1st century BC until mid-2nd century AD.

The legion was raised, along with the 6th, 7th and 8th, by Pompey in Hispania in 65 BC.

Caesar's Ninth Legion fought in the battles of Dyrrhachium and Pharsalus (48 BC) and in the African campaign of 46 BC. After his final victory, Caesar disbanded the legion and settled the veterans in the area of Picenum.

Following Caesar's assassination, Octavian recalled the veterans of the Ninth to fight against the rebellion of Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. After defeating Sextus, they were sent to the province of Macedonia. The Ninth remained with Octavian in his war of 31 BC against Mark Antony and fought by his side in the battle of Actium. With Octavian as sole ruler of the Roman world, the legion was sent to Hispania to take part in the large-scale campaign against the Cantabrians (25–13 BC). The nickname Hispana ("stationed in Hispania") is first found during the reign of Augustus and probably originated at this time.

The legion's fate is unknown but has been the subject of considerable interest and research. It was based in York in 108. The theory that it was destroyed in action north of Hadrian's Wall around 117 was popularized by a 1954 novel, The Eagle of the Ninth by Rosemary Sutcliff, but was somewhat discredited when tile stamps later found in Nijmegen show that the legion was still based there between 121 and 130. Dio Cassius records that a legion was destroyed in Armenia by the Parthians in 161; it was possibly the Ninth Legion. In any event, the Ninth does not appear in a list of legions compiled in 165.

The above coin is for sale and can be purchased by following the link to Mauseus on Ebay HERE.

Sunday, 2 February 2014

New site - Architectura Numismatica

TYRE in PHOENICIA- Temple of Astarte
Elagabalus, AE 29mm, BMC 393, Rouvier 2363 
Using this blogger software I've started to construct some pages about buildings and monuments on ancient coins, something that interests me (as you might have gathered from some of my previous posts here). I've added the link to the list of blogs on this site.

Wednesday, 16 October 2013

A coin of two Trajans, son and father

Trajan was the successor of the emperor Nerva and pre-decessor of Hadrian. The coin above shows the emperor Trajan on one side and his natural father, Marcus Ulpius Traianus senior, seated on the other.

Trajan senior was born in Hispania into a Roman family of Italian stock. His paternal ancestors moved from Italy and settled in Italica (near modern Seville, Spain) in the Roman Province of Hispania Baetica.

He was the first member of his family to enter the Roman Senate. Some time before 67, Trajan Sr. may have commanded a legion under the Roman General Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Under the future emperor Vespasian (who was at the time the Roman Governor of Judea), he commanded the tenth legion, Legio X Fretensis, during the First Jewish–Roman War between 67-68. During this time, he came into favour with the future emperor.

Due to his successes, Vespasian awarded Trajan Sr. the governorship of a province, although which one is unknown, and a consulship in 70. In later years, he served as a Roman Governor of Hispania Baetica, Syria, in 79 or 80 governed an unknown African province and then western Anatolia. During his time in Syria, he prevented a Parthian invasion.

Coins depicting Trajan’s natural father are difficult to find. The most cost effective way of acquiring a coin of this Roman personality is to get one which shows him seated on a curule chair on the reverse honouring him post mortem with the legend DIVVS PATER TRAIAN. The above coin is for sale and can be purchased by following the link to Mauseus on vCoins HERE.

Sunday, 6 October 2013

A coin of Valerian from Anemurion

Valerian I, AE 27mm Anemurion (Anemurium) in Cilicia

 A bronze coin of Valerian I (253-60 AD), made in the third year of his reign. The unlucky Roman emperor Valerian reigned for seven years before he was captured by the Sasanian ruler Shapur I and spent the rest of his life in captivity.

The above coin itself is not a product from a Roman mint as such but rather one that was made in a provincial mint that made coins for local circulation and for local commerce in the eastern provinces. The main part of the reverse is the mint name, ANEMOVPIѠN in Greek script.


 The ruins at Anemurion

Anemurion (Anemurium in Latin), located in what is now Turkey but in Roman times was Cilicia. It was situated in on a high bluff knob (Cape Anamur) that marks the southernmost point of Asia Minor, opposite Cyprus.


The theatre


The ruins of its theatres, tombs and walls are still visible and were first mentioned by Francis Beaufort, an English naval captain who explored the south coast of Turkey in 1811-12 and who published his discoveries in Karamania. Excavations have revealed extensive traces of the city's buildings, tombs and history from the 1st century after Christ until the city's abandonment around 650 when Arab attacks made the coast unsafe.

Teams have uncovered a large theatre, a small covered theater or odeon, several public baths decorated with mosaic floors (some converted to industrial use in late antiquity), four early Christian churches (also with mosaic floors and donors' inscriptions), a possible civil basilica (law court), sections of the city walls and aqueducts, and a number of minor structures. Work in the city's extensive necropolis of several hundred tombs built above ground has revealed and conserved wall paintings (including the four seasons) and more mosaic floors.

 Ruins on the shore


The last coins minted in Anemorion were in the mid third century before its capture by the Sasanians in 260.

The coin at the top of this note is for sale and can be purchased by following the link to Mauseus on vCoins HERE.


Saturday, 28 September 2013

The capture of Perseus


The officials named on Roman republican coins sometimes took the opportunity to publicise their relative’s acts from times past. An example of this is on the following coin.

Struck in 62 BC by Paullus Lepidus the obverse features a veiled head of Concordia, surrounded by the moneyer’s name. The moneyer was a supporter of Cicero who had the concordia ordinum as a central feature of his policies.

The reverse, however, is rather interesting (to me at least). It depicts a tophy of arms with a large figure and two small ones to the left and another large figure on the right.

The legend TER(tius) above and PAVLLVS below and commemorates the third imperatorial titles (or victories) of L Aemilius Paullus, the large figure on the right, an ancestor of Paullus Lepidus.  His last and greatest claimed victory was in 168 BC over Perseus, the last King of Macedon and his half brother, Philippus, and also his son Alexander at the battle of Pydna. It is these figures that we see on the left of the trophy. Alexander was kept in custody at Alba Fucens, together with his father. He became a skillful toreutes, learned the Latin language, and became a public notary.

The coin at the top of this note is for sale and can be purchased by following the link to Mauseus on vCoins HERE.


The triumph of Aemilius Paullus - Carle Vernet (1789)